.J Clin Neurosci. 2017 Sep;43:61-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2017.05.012. Epub 2017 Jun 7.Evidence based effects of yoga in neurological disorders.Mooventhan A1Nivethitha L2.Author information: 
1. Department of Research and Development, S-VYASA University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. Electronic address: dr.mooventhan@gmail.com.
2. Department of Research and Development, S-VYASA University, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.AbstractThough yoga is one of the widely used mind-body medicine for health promotion, disease prevention and as a possible treatment modality for neurological disorders, there is a lack of evidence-based review. Hence, we performed a comprehensive search in the PubMed/Medline electronic database to review relevant articles in English, using keywords “yoga and neurological disorder, yoga and multiple sclerosis, yoga and stroke, yoga and epilepsy, yoga and Parkinson’s disease, yoga and dementia, yoga and cerebrovascular disease, yoga and Alzheimer disease, yoga and neuropathy, yoga and myelopathy, and yoga and Guillain-Barre syndrome”. A total of 700 articles published from 1963 to 14th December 2016 were available. Of 700 articles, 94 articles were included in this review. Based on the available literature, it could be concluded that yoga might be considered as an effective adjuvant for the patients with various neurological disorders.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28599839 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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2.Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2016 Aug;24:145-61. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2016.06.005. Epub 2016 Jun 16.Yoga research review.Field T1.Author information: 
1. Touch Research Institute, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, United States; Fielding Graduate University, United States. Electronic address: tfield@med.miami.edu.AbstractThis paper is a review of empirical studies, review and meta-analysis publications on yoga from the last few years. The review includes demographics/prevalence of yoga as a practice, bibliometric analyses of the yoga publications and the use of yoga for physical fitness and cognitive function. Most of the studies reviewed here involve yoga effects on psychiatric and medical conditions. These include pregnancy, prenatal and postpartum depression; stress, PTSD, anxiety, and obesity; cardiovascular conditions including hypertension; pain syndromes including arthritis, headaches and low back pain; autoimmune conditions including asthma, type II diabetes and multiple sclerosis; immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer; and aging problems including balance, osteoporosis and Parkinson’s. The methods and results of those studies are briefly summarized along with their limitations and suggestions for future research. Basically yoga has been more effective than control and waitlist control conditions, although not always more effective than treatment comparison groups such as other forms of exercise. More randomized controlled studies are needed in which yoga is compared to active exercise groups. Having established the physical and mental health benefits of yoga makes it ethically questionable to assign participants to inactive control groups. Shorter sessions should be investigated for cost-effectiveness and for daily practice. Multiple physical and physiological measures need to be added to the self-report research protocols and potential underlying mechanisms need to be further explored. In the interim, the studies reviewed here highlight the therapeutic effects of yoga, a practice that could come to be called yoga therapy.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 27502816 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.Int J Yoga Therap. 2017 Nov;27(1):127-129. doi: 10.17761/1531-2054-27.1.127.Yoga Therapy in Japan.Kimura K1.Author information: 
1. President, Japan Yoga Therapy Society, Yonago City, Tottori Prefecture, JAPAN.AbstractThis perspective piece gives an overview of the current situation of yoga therapy in Japan today. Traditional yoga in Japan suffered a serious setback in 1995 with a nerve gas terrorist attack on the Tokyo subway, which was carried out by a cult that recruited members through yoga classes. But with the increase in popularity with modern forms of yoga such as Iyengar yoga, Ashtanga yoga and hot yoga in the West, the general public in Japan today is forgetting its aversion to yoga and considers it to be something that can contribute to good health. In 2012, the Japan Yoga Therapy Society (JYTS) conducted a study on adverse events in yoga classes throughout Japan with the University of Kyushu School of Medicine, with support from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. This study indicated that more than half of people attending yoga classes have some form of chronic illness, with 42.3% receiving outpatient care. This survey was the beginning of growing interest from both the government and universities in yoga therapy. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. JYTS is beginning to make inroads into bringing yoga therapy into cancer and palliative care, senior citizen homes, alcohol and drug addiction rehabilitation, cardiovascular rehabilitation, and research on trauma and schizophrenia. While there are still limited opportunities for yoga therapists to work in mainstream healthcare services, there is growing interest among medical professionals in both physical and mental health. This perspective piece introduces some of the developments in yoga therapy research and practice in Japan.
PMID: 29131734 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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4.Support Care Cancer. 2017 Apr;25(4):1357-1372. doi: 10.1007/s00520-016-3556-9. Epub 2017 Jan 7.Review of yoga therapy during cancer treatment.Danhauer SC1Addington EL2,3Sohl SJ2Chaoul A4Cohen L4.Author information: 
1. Department of Social Sciences & Health Policy, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA. danhauer@wakehealth.edu.
2. Department of Social Sciences & Health Policy, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.
3. Department of Medical Social Sciences, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
4. Department of Palliative, Rehabilitation, and Integrative Medicine, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.AbstractPURPOSE: Reviews of yoga research that distinguish results of trials conducted during (versus after) cancer treatment are needed to guide future research and clinical practice. We therefore conducted a review of non-randomized studies and randomized controlled trials of yoga interventions for children and adults undergoing treatment for any cancer type.METHODS: Studies were identified via research databases and reference lists. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) children or adults undergoing cancer treatment, (2) intervention stated as yoga or component of yoga, and (3) publication in English in peer-reviewed journals through October 2015. Exclusion criteria were the following: (1) samples receiving hormone therapy only, (2) interventions involving meditation only, and (3) yoga delivered within broader cancer recovery or mindfulness-based stress reduction programs.RESULTS: Results of non-randomized (adult n = 8, pediatric n = 4) and randomized controlled trials (adult n = 13, pediatric n = 0) conducted during cancer treatment are summarized separately by age group. Findings most consistently support improvement in psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, distress, anxiety). Several studies also found that yoga enhanced quality of life, though further investigation is needed to clarify domain-specific efficacy (e.g., physical, social, cancer-specific). Regarding physical and biomedical outcomes, evidence increasingly suggests that yoga ameliorates sleep and fatigue; additional research is needed to advance preliminary findings for other treatment sequelae and stress/immunity biomarkers.CONCLUSIONS: Among adults undergoing cancer treatment, evidence supports recommending yoga for improving psychological outcomes, with potential for also improving physical symptoms. Evidence is insufficient to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in pediatric oncology. We describe suggestions for strengthening yoga research methodology to inform clinical practice guidelines.PMCID: PMC5777241 Free PMC Article 
PMID: 28064385 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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5.J Affect Disord. 2017 Apr 15;213:70-77. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.02.006. Epub 2017 Feb 7.A systematic review of yoga for major depressive disorder.Cramer H1Anheyer D2Lauche R3Dobos G2.Author information: 
1. Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Faculty of Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address: h.cramer@kliniken-essen-mitte.de.
2. Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Faculty of Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
3. Australian Research Centre in Complementary and Integrative Medicine (ARCCIM), Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.AbstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this review was to investigate the efficacy and safety of yoga interventions in treating patients with major depressive disorder.METHODS: MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library were screened through December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing yoga to inactive or active comparators in patients with major depressive disorder were eligible. Primary outcomes included remission rates and severity of depression. Anxiety and adverse events were secondary outcomes. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool.RESULTS: Seven RCTs with 240 participants were included. Risk of bias was unclear for most RCTs. Compared to aerobic exercise, no short- or medium-term group differences in depression severity was found. Higher short-term depression severity was found for yoga compared to electro-convulsive therapy; remission rates did not differ between groups. No short-term group differences occurred when yoga was compared to antidepressant medication. Conflicting evidence was found when yoga was compared to attention-control interventions, or when yoga as an add-on to antidepressant medication was compared to medication alone. Only two RCTs assessed adverse events and reported that no treatment-related adverse events were reported.LIMITATIONS: Few RCTs with low sample size.CONCLUSIONS: This review found some evidence for positive effects beyond placebo and comparable effects compared to evidence-based interventions. However, methodological problems and the unclear risk-benefit ratio preclude definitive recommendations for or against yoga as an adjunct treatment for major depressive disorder. Larger and adequately powered RCTs using non-inferiority designs are needed.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28192737 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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6.Int J Yoga Therap. 2017 Nov;27(1):121-126. doi: 10.17761/1531-2054-27.1.121.Yoga and Healthcare in the United Kingdom.Mason H1Schnackenberg N2Monro R2.Author information: 
1. 1. The Minded Institute, London, UNITED KINGDOM.
2. 2. Yoga Biomedical Trust.AbstractThe emergence of yoga therapy in the United Kingdom began about 45 years ago with the emergence of yoga therapy organizations that offered both treatment and training. The integration of yoga into the National Health Service (NHS) is gradually happening Because: (a) yoga research supports its efficacy as a cost-effective, preventive and complementary treatment for a host of non-communicable diseases; and (b) the escalating economic burden of long-term conditions is overwhelming the NHS. The NHS is actively developing ‘sustainability and transformation plans’ that include yoga. Chief among these is ‘social prescribing,’ which empowers patients with complex health needs through activities groups. These activities reduce sedentary habits and social isolation, while helping patients to be more self-reliant. The NHS has allocated £450 million in funding to implement a variety of programs for its own staff, in which staff yoga classes were expressly mentioned. The yoga community is mobilizing forces and applying for funding to pilot relevant NHS staff yoga courses that can support the service in achieving its vision. Research shows that integrating yoga therapy for the treatment of low back pain (LBP) into the NHS would result in significant cost savings as compared with usual care. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) Guidelines on LBP and sciatica include yoga as one of the recommended treatments for these conditions. Three groups of yoga teachers, using different yoga practices, have gained traction with the NHS for the application of yoga therapy to LBP. Many regional hospitals in England have yoga classes. The NHS Choices website, which conveys information to the public regarding treatment options, has a page dedicated to the health benefits of yoga. Several institutions offer comprehensive training programs in yoga therapy and yoga therapy is recognized as an official profession. The Yoga in Healthcare Alliance has been established to help integrate yoga therapy into the NHS. This consists of parliamentarians, leaders in the NHS, yoga researchers, health professionals, and representatives from leading yoga organizations.
PMID: 29131732 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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7.Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Sep;59(3):600-12. doi: 10.1097/GRF.0000000000000210.Yoga in Pregnancy.Babbar S1Shyken J.Author information: 
1. St. Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri.AbstractYoga is a mind-body practice that encompasses a system of postures (asana), deep breathing (pranayama), and meditation. Over 36 million Americans practice yoga of which the majority are reproductive-aged women. Literature to support this practice is limited, albeit on the rise. A prenatal yoga practice has been shown to benefit women who suffer from anxiety, depression, stress, low back pain, and sleep disturbances. A small number of studies have been performed in high-risk pregnancies that also demonstrate an improvement in outcomes. The safety of performing yoga for the first time in pregnancy and fetal tolerance has been demonstrated.
PMID: 27152528 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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8.Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2017 Dec;142(25):1925-1929. doi: 10.1055/s-0043-116158. Epub 2017 Dec 14.[Where and How does Yoga Work? – A Scientific Overview].[Article in German]Cramer H.AbstractAs a traditional health care system, yoga combines physical activity, breathing techniques and meditation. It is increasingly used as a preventive or therapeutic means. Yoga has been researched in hundreds of randomized controlled trials. Positive effects are especially found for chronic pain conditions, hypertension, depression and in supportive cancer care. While there are case reports of serious adverse events associated with yoga, the risk seems to be extremely low and comparable to other forms of physical activity. Yoga can thus be considered as a safe and effective adjunct therapy for a number of conditions.© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
PMID: 29241287 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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Conflict of interest statementDisclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work.
9.Int J Yoga Therap. 2017 Nov;27(1):9-14. doi: 10.17761/1531-2054-27.1.9.Psychological Benefits of Yoga for Female Inmates.Danielly Y1Silverthorne C1.Author information: 
1. University of San Francisco.AbstractFemale inmates involved in the Yoga Prison Project at two correctional facilities in South Carolina served as subjects. Inmates were selected from those who applied to participate in a ten-week trauma-focused yoga program. To create control and experimental groups, inmates who requested to participate were randomly assigned to be in the class (Treatment Group, n = 33) or a waitlist (Control Group, n = 17). Inmates on the waitlist subsequently joined the next class, so all who applied and were eligible participated in a yoga class. Measures of stress, depression, self control, anxiety, self awareness and rumination were used and data was collected from both groups before the initial yoga class began and again at the end, ten weeks later. To assess the changes from pre-intervention to post-intervention, mixed design ANOVA tests were conducted. Inmates in the yoga group reported significant decreases in depression and stress and improved self-awareness. No significant changes were found on measures of anxiety, rumination and self-control in the yoga groups. Although not statistically significant, anxiety scores did decrease and self-control scores improved for the yoga group, while inmates in the control group reported a worsening or no change on these two measures. No changes were found in rumination levels. The results suggest that Yoga is a relatively inexpensive intervention that could benefit both inmates and prison staff by reducing some negative behaviors and possibly mental health problems.
PMID: 29131730 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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10.Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017 May;27:27-30. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.01.003. Epub 2017 Jan 27.Integrating yoga into psychotherapy: The ethics of moving from the mind to the mat.Kamradt JM1.Author information: 
1. Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, 11 Seashore Hall E, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, United States. Electronic address: jaclyn-kamradt@uiowa.edu.AbstractGiven the rise in attention to client preferences in medical treatment and the shift in focus toward health promotion, it is not surprising that the use of complementary health approaches have increased in the past several years. Yoga is among the most prominent complementary health approaches. Recently, both qualitative and quantitative work has emerged supporting its use for a variety of medical and psychological disorders. However, there is a critical gap in knowledge regarding how to most optimally and ethically integrate complementary therapies (i.e., yoga) into current psychology practices. Moreover, it remains unclear which clients are the best candidates for receiving such complementary treatments and which therapists should provide them. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the history of yoga, the scientific evidence in support of its use for mental health issues, and an ethical framework to guide psychologists interested in integrating yoga into psychotherapy.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.PMCID: PMC5654398 Free PMC Article 
PMID: 28438276 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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11.Int J Yoga Therap. 2017 Nov;27(1):69-79. doi: 10.17761/1531-2054-27.1.69.The Use of Yoga by Physical Therapists in the United States.Wims ME1McIntyre SM1York A1Covill LG1.Author information: 
1. Des Moines University, Iowa.AbstractHow physical therapists (PTs) in the United States currently use yoga in their clinical practices is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine how PTs in the United States view yoga as a physical therapy (PT) tool and how PTs use yoga therapeutically. The authors conducted a 24-item survey via electronic communications of the Geriatric, Orthopedic, Pediatric, and Women’s Health Sections of the American Physical Therapy Association. Participants (n = 333) from 47 states and the District of Columbia replied. Reported use of therapeutic yoga among participants was high (70.6%). Of those participants, nearly a third use asana and pranayama only. Most participants using therapeutic yoga also include additional mindfulness-related elements such as sensory awareness, concentration/focus, and/or meditation. Most participants learned about yoga through personal experiences, with many participants citing lack of familiarity in using yoga in PT practice. Safety is the primary concern of participants when recommending yoga to patients as an independent health and wellness activity. Interdisciplinary communication between PTs, yoga therapists, and yoga teachers is warranted to address the post-discharge needs of clients. Healthcare changes have required PTs to adapt to a biopsychosocial-spiritual model (BPSS) for improved patient outcomes. Therapeutic yoga may provide an opportunity for PTs to expand their role in health and wellness and chronic disease management. There is opportunity for continuing education in therapeutic yoga for PTs.
PMID: 29131737 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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12.Asian J Psychiatr. 2017 Feb;25:191-196. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2016.10.021. Epub 2016 Nov 5.Yoga and substance use disorders: A narrative review.Sarkar S1Varshney M2.Author information: 
1. Department of Psychiatry and NDDTC, AIIMS, New Delhi, India.
2. Department of Psychiatry and NDDTC, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. Electronic address: drmohitvarshney23@hotmail.com.AbstractYoga has been utilized for promotion of health and alleviating distress. It has also been used as a therapeutic measure in the field of mental health, including substance use disorders. This narrative review discusses the literature pertaining to use of yoga in the treatment of substance use disorders. The evidence base especially with regards to randomized trials is presented. The possible mechanisms how yoga might be helpful in the treatment of substance use disorders are explored. Subsequently, implications of yoga in clinical practice are elaborated, followed by examination of the issues in interpretation of the literature of published yoga related studies.Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PMID: 28262148 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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13.J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Jun;23(6):407-417. doi: 10.1089/acm.2016.0363. Epub 2017 Feb 16.The Effect of Yoga on Menstrual Disorders: A Systematic Review.Oates J1.Author information: 
1. Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery, King’s College London , London, United Kingdom .AbstractOBJECTIVE: To summarize and evaluate evidence for the effect of yoga on menstrual disorders.METHODS: PubMed, CINAHL/MEDLINE, Web of Science, AMED, and Scopus were searched for English-language literature relevant to the review question. All primary research studies were included.RESULTS: Fifteen studies described in 18 papers were included in the review. A range of yoga interventions were used. Some studies used a combination of Asana, Pranayama, and other yogic relaxation or meditation techniques. All included studies reported some change in their outcome measures, suggesting reduced symptoms of menstrual distress following a yoga intervention; however, the heterogeneity and intensity of the interventions and outcome measures meant that findings have limited generalizability and applicability in practice settings.CONCLUSIONS: Further research on the relationship between yoga practice and menstrual disorders is warranted, but there must be both consistency in the methods, measures, and quality of studies and a shift toward research on yoga practices that are replicable outside of the clinical trial setting.
PMID: 28437145 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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14.Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2015 May;21(2):112-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2015.02.002. Epub 2015 Mar 9.Effects of yoga on brain waves and structural activation: A review.Desai R1Tailor A1Bhatt T2.Author information: 
1. Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA.
2. Department of Physical Therapy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA. Electronic address: tbhatt6@uic.edu.AbstractPrevious research has shown the vast mental and physical health benefits associated with yoga. Yoga practice can be divided into subcategories that include posture-holding exercise (asana), breathing (pranayama, Kriya), and meditation (Sahaj) practice. Studies measuring mental health outcomes have shown decreases in anxiety, and increases in cognitive performance after yoga interventions. Similar studies have also shown cognitive advantages amongst yoga practitioners versus non-practitioners. The mental health and cognitive benefits of yoga are evident, but the physiological and structural changes in the brain that lead to this remain a topic that lacks consensus. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine and review existing literature on the effects of yoga on brain waves and structural changes and activation. After a narrowed search through a set of specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 articles were used in this review. It was concluded that breathing, meditation, and posture-based yoga increased overall brain wave activity. Increases in graygray matter along with increases in amygdala and frontal cortex activation were evident after a yoga intervention. Yoga practice may be an effective adjunctive treatment for a clinical and healthy aging population. Further research can examine the effects of specific branches of yoga on a designated clinical population.Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 25824030 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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15.Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2016 Feb;124(2):65-70. doi: 10.1055/s-0035-1565062. Epub 2015 Nov 17.The Efficacy and Safety of Yoga in Managing Hypertension.Cramer H1.Author information: 
1. Department of Internal and Integrative Medicine, Kliniken Essen-Mitte, Faculty of Medicine, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.AbstractHypertension is a major public health problem and one of the most important causes of premature morbidity and mortality. Yoga is a traditional Indian practice that has been adapted for use in complementary and alternative medicine and mainly includes physical postures, breathing techniques, and meditation. The impact of yoga as a complementary intervention for hypertension has been investigated in a number of randomized controlled trials; with an overall effect of about 10 mmHg reduction in systolic and about 8 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure. Yoga seems to be effective only for hypertension but not for prehypertension; and only as an adjunct to antihypertensive pharmacological treatment but not as an alternative therapy. Breathing and meditation rather than physical activity seem to be the active part of yoga interventions for hypertensive patients. These practices can increase parasympathic activity and decrease sympathetic activity, arguably mainly by increasing GABA activity; thus counteracting excess activity of the sympathetic nervous system which has been associated with hypertension. Although yoga has been associated with serious adverse events in single case reports, population-based surveys as well as clinical trials indicate that yoga is a relatively safe intervention that is not associated with more adverse events than other forms of physical activity. Yoga can thus be considered a safe and effective intervention for managing hypertension. Given the possibly better risk/benefit ratio, it may be advisable to focus on yogic meditation and/or breathing techniques.© Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
PMID: 26575122 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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16.Int J Yoga Therap. 2017 Nov;27(1):95-112. doi: 10.17761/1531-2054-27.1.95.Guidelines for teaching yoga to women with breast cancer-related lymphoedema: an evidence-based approach.Loudon A1Barnett T1Williams AD2Visentin D2Immink MA3Piller N4.Author information: 
1. 1. Centre for Rural Health, University of Tasmania, Australia.
2. 2. School of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Australia.
3. 3. School of Health Science, University of South Australia, Australia.
4. 4. Department of Surgery, Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia.AbstractBreast cancer-related lymphoedema (BCRL) is a chronic condition that requires lifelong management to prevent the condition worsening and to reduce the threat of infection. Women are affected in all domains of their life. As a holistic practice, yoga may be of benefit by reducing both the physical and psychosocial effects of lymphoedema. Women with BCRL are attending yoga classes in increasing numbers, so it is essential that yoga be based on principles that ensure lymphoedema is controlled and not exacerbated. Two Randomised Controlled Trials with a yoga intervention have had positive results after an 8-week intervention (n=28) and 6-months after a 4-week intervention (n=18). The first study had several significant results and women reported increased biopsychosocial improvements. Both studies showed trends to improved lymphoedema status. The yoga interventions compromised breathing, physical postures, meditation and relaxation practices based on Satyananda Yoga®, with modifications to promote lymphatic drainage and following principles of best current care for those with BCRL. Individual needs were considered. The yoga protocol that was used in the 8-week trial is presented. Our aim is to provide principles for yoga teachers/therapists working with this clientele that can be adapted to other yoga styles. Further, these principles may provide a basis for the development of yoga programs for people with secondary lymphoedema in other areas of their body as the population requiring cancer treatment continues to increase. Whilst the style of yoga presented here has had positive outcomes, further application and research is needed to fully demonstrate its effectiveness.
PMID: 29131727 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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17.J Bodyw Mov Ther. 2017 Oct;21(4):840-846. doi: 10.1016/j.jbmt.2017.01.014. Epub 2017 Feb 7.Effect of yoga on the menstrual pain, physical fitness, and quality of life of young women with primary dysmenorrhea.Yonglitthipagon P1Muansiangsai S1Wongkhumngern W1Donpunha W1Chanavirut R1Siritaratiwat W1Mato L1Eungpinichpong W1Janyacharoen T2.Author information: 
1. School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand.
2. School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 40002, Thailand. Electronic address: taweesak@kku.ac.th.AbstractThe aim of the present study was to investigate effect of specially designed yoga program on the menstrual pain, physical fitness, and quality of life (QOL) of non-athlete women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD) aged 18-22 years. Thirty-four volunteers were randomly assigned into control and yoga groups. Menstrual pain, physical fitness, and QOL were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the 12-week study period. The yoga group was asked to practice yoga for 30 min per day, twice a week, for 12 weeks at home, while the control group did not receive any form of exercise over the study period. There were significant improve in menstrual pain, physical fitness, and QOL in the yoga group more than the control group. Therefore, this specially designed yoga program may be a possible complementary treatment for PD.Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
PMID: 29037637 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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18.Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;28(3):242-53. doi: 10.3109/09540261.2016.1160878. Epub 2016 Apr 4.Yoga and physical exercise – a review and comparison.Govindaraj R1Karmani S1Varambally S1Gangadhar BN1.Author information: 
1. a NIMHANS Integrated Centre for Yoga, Department of Psychiatry , National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, India.Comment inYoga and physical exercise. [Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016]AbstractYoga is a multifaceted spiritual tool with enhanced health and well-being as one of its positive effects. The components of yoga which are very commonly applied for health benefits are asanas (physical postures), pranayama (regulated breathing) and meditation. In the context of asanas, yoga resembles more of a physical exercise, which may lead to the perception that yoga is another kind of physical exercise. This article aims at exploring the commonalities and differences between yoga and physical exercise in terms of concepts, possible mechanisms and effectiveness for health benefits. A narrative review is undertaken based on traditional and contemporary literature for yoga, along with scientific articles available on yoga and exercise including head-to-head comparative trials with healthy volunteers and patients with various disease conditions. Physical exercises and the physical components of yoga practices have several similarities, but also important differences. Evidence suggests that yoga interventions appear to be equal and/or superior to exercise in most outcome measures. Emphasis on breath regulation, mindfulness during practice, and importance given to maintenance of postures are some of the elements which differentiate yoga practices from physical exercises.
PMID: 27044898 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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19.Int J Yoga Therap. 2017 Nov;27(1):81-86. doi: 10.17761/1531-2054-27.1.81.Yoga practice is associated with superior motor imagery performance.Hartnoll SH1Punt TD1.Author information: 
1. University of Birmingham.AbstractYoga is an activity that aims to integrate physical, mental and spiritual elements and is an increasingly popular approach to enhancing physical fitness. The integration of imagery within yoga practice is considered an important component and may be critical in contributing to the benefits of yoga that have been reported. In this study, we tested whether individuals who practice yoga demonstrate superior performance on an objective measure of implicit motor imagery. Thirty-six participants (18 yoga, 18 non-yoga) matched for age, sex and handedness, undertook the hand laterality recognition task; an objective measure of implicit motor imagery performance. Accuracy and response times were gathered and analysed to determine any group differences as well as any differences relating to the typical hallmarks of imagery (i.e. dominance and awkwardness effects) on the task. Response Times (RTs) in the yoga group were significantly faster than controls (p < 0.05) and there was also a trend towards greater accuracy for the Yoga group (p = 0.073). Dominance effects (faster responses to images corresponding with the dominant limb) and Awkwardness effects (faster responses to images corresponding with natural compared with awkward postures) were evident across groups, supporting the participants’ use of motor imagery in undertaking the task. Additionally, a Group × Awkwardness interaction (p < 0.05) revealed that the enhanced imagery performance for the yoga group was most pronounced for awkward postures. This is the first study to show that yoga practice is associated with superior motor imagery performance; an association that may be important in explaining the established rehabilitative value of yoga for chronic pain.
PMID: 29131728 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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20.J Clin Psychol. 2018 Jan;74(1):93-108. doi: 10.1002/jclp.22483. Epub 2017 May 19.Kripalu Yoga for Military Veterans With PTSD: A Randomized Trial.Reinhardt KM1Noggle Taylor JJ1,2Johnston J3Zameer A4Cheema S5Khalsa SBS1.Author information: 
1. Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
2. Emory University.
3. Lowell Vet Center.
4. Northeastern University.
5. Kaiser Permanente.AbstractOBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled trial of yoga for military veterans and active duty personnel with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) evaluated the efficacy of a 10-week yoga intervention on PTSD.METHOD: Fifty-one participants were randomized into yoga or no-treatment assessment-only control groups. Primary outcome measures included questionnaires and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale.RESULTS: Both yoga (n = 9) and control (n = 6) participants showed significant decreases in reexperiencing symptoms, with no significant between-group differences. Secondary within-group analyses of a self-selected wait-list yoga group (n = 7) showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms after yoga participation, in contrast to their control group participation. Consistent with current literature regarding high rates of PTSD treatment dropout for veterans, this study faced challenges retaining participants across conditions.CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with recent literature indicating that yoga may have potential as a PTSD therapy in a veteran or military population. However, additional larger sample size trials are necessary to confirm this conclusion.© 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
PMID: 28524358 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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21.Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi. 2015;62(5):221-31. doi: 10.11236/jph.62.5_221.[Effects of prenatal yoga: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials].[Article in Japanese]Kawanishi Y1Hanley SJTabata KNakagi YIto TYoshioka EYoshida TSaijo Y.Author information: 
1. Department of Health Science, Asahikawa Medical University.AbstractOBJECTIVES: While several studies on the preventive and therapeutic effects of prenatal yoga (maternity yoga) have been reported in recent years, there has been no systematic review on the effects of prenatal yoga based on randomized controlled trials (RCT). The purpose of this study, therefore, was to systematically review the literature to clarify the effects of prenatal yoga in RCT focusing on the contents of the intervention, the intervention means, and the frequency of practice.METHODS: The literature search was performed using the electronic database, PubMed. The inclusion criteria were RCT, pregnant women, and yoga intervention.RESULTS: In total, 54 citations were found; of these, eight studies (10 reports) were included in the final analysis. In four studies on healthy pregnant women, significant improvement in pain and pleasure at delivery, duration of delivery, perceived stress levels during pregnancy, anxiety levels, depression, pregnancy-related experiences, quality of life, and interpersonal relationships were compared to those in the control group. In two studies on depressed pregnant women, one reported that depression, anxiety levels, anger levels, leg pain, and back pain significantly improved with yoga, while the other found no differences from the control group. In one study of high-risk pregnant women with morbidity factors such as obesity or advanced age, yoga resulted in significantly fewer cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension, gestational diabetes, and intrauterine growth restriction, as well as a decrease in perceived stress levels. In one study on pregnant women with pelvic pain, the median pain score was lower in the yoga group. Regarding the contents of the intervention, while the two studies for depressed pregnant women only included physical postures, the remaining six studies also included breathing technique and meditation. Interventions were performed using lectures by instructors alone or together with self-teaching. The frequency of the intervention varied within each study.CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that prenatal yoga may help reduce pelvic pain. It may also improve mental condition (stress, depression, anxiety, etc.), physical condition (pain and pleasure at the delivery, etc.), and perinatal outcomes (obstetrical complications, delivery time, etc.). However, further studies are needed. The contents of the intervention, the intervention means, and the frequency varied with each study. Thus, it is necessary to further examine the content of effective interventions, intervention means, and frequency that suit participant’s characteristics and each outcome. Further research in this field, particularly randomized controlled trials, is merited.Free Article 
PMID: 26118705 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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22.J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Jun;23(6):487-493. doi: 10.1089/acm.2016.0156. Epub 2017 Jan 11.A Qualitative Study Exploring Community Yoga Practice in Adults with Rheumatoid Arthritis.Greysen HM1Greysen SR2Lee KA3Hong OS3Katz P4Leutwyler H3.Author information: 
1. 1 University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing , Philadelphia, PA.
2. 2 University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine , Philadelphia, PA.
3. 3 University of California San Francisco School of Nursing , San Francisco, CA.
4. 4 University of California San Francisco School of Medicine , San Francisco, CA.AbstractOBJECTIVE: Yoga may improve physical function and reduce disease symptoms in adults with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, little is known about how patients with RA are practicing yoga in the community. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore community yoga practice characteristics and thoughts about yoga practice for adults with RA.DESIGN: Participants completed a semi-structured telephone interview with open-ended questions. Thematic analysis was used to analyze interview transcripts.PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 17 adults with rheumatologist-diagnosed RA who had participated in yoga within the past year were asked about the decision to start, continue, and stop yoga; the perceived benefits of yoga; components of yoga sessions; and general thoughts about yoga as it relates to RA.RESULTS: Although eight different styles of yoga were practiced, commonalities in yoga class components (such as stretching, strengthening, deep breathing, meditation, and positive messaging from the instructor) reveal examples of preferred types of yoga for patients with RA. Three main themes emerged, each with multiple subthemes: (1) motivators (physical fitness, influence of others, reduced price), (2) barriers (cost, symptom burden, class difficulty), and (3) benefits of yoga practice (mind-body, a tool for coping, pride/achievement, social, and “yoga meets you where you are”).CONCLUSION: In this study, patients with RA described how yoga practice helped improve physical and psychosocial symptoms related to their disease. Yoga practice, a dynamic exercise, encompassing many different styles, can provide many benefits for adults with RA; however, yoga may not be beneficial for every adult with RA.PMCID: PMC5488310 Free PMC Article 
PMID: 28075155 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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23.Biol Res Nurs. 2018 May;20(3):343-351. doi: 10.1177/1099800417739152. Epub 2017 Nov 12.Determining Psychoneuroimmunologic Markers of Yoga as an Intervention for Persons Diagnosed With PTSD: A Systematic Review.Kelly UA1,2Evans DD2Baker H2Noggle Taylor J2.Author information: 
1. 1 Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, USA.
2. 2 Emory University Nell Hodgson Woodruff School of Nursing, Atlanta, GA, USA.AbstractThere is a growing body of research on yoga as a therapeutic intervention for psychological symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) accompanied by speculations on underlying physiologic mechanisms. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, qualitatively evaluate, and synthesize studies of yoga as an intervention for PTSD that measured physiologic outcomes in order to gain insights into potential mechanisms. The focus is on studies evaluating yoga as a therapeutic intervention for PTSD rather than for trauma exposure, PTSD prevention, or subclinical PTSD. Multiple databases were searched for publications from the past two decades using terms derived from the question, “In people with PTSD, what is the effect of yoga on objective outcomes?” Eligibility criteria included yoga-only modalities tested as an intervention for formally diagnosed PTSD with at least one physiologic outcome. Results of this review confirmed that, though much of the published literature proposes physiological mechanisms underlying yoga’s effects on PTSD, very few studies ( n = 3) have actually evaluated physiological evidence. Additionally, several studies had methodological limitations. In light of the limited data supporting yoga’s beneficial effects on autonomic nervous system dysregulation, we present a theoretical model of the psychoneuroimmunologic processes associated with PTSD and the effects yoga may have on these processes to guide future research. Gaps in the literature remain for mechanisms related to activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammation. Additional rigorous mechanistic studies are needed to guide development of effective yoga interventions for PTSD to augment existing evidence-based PTSD treatments.
PMID: 29130314 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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24.Sao Paulo Med J. 2016 Jul-Aug;134(4):368. doi: 10.1590/1516-3180.20161344T2.Yoga for asthma.Yang ZYZhong HBMao CYuan JQHuang YFWu XYGao YMTang JL.Comment onYoga for asthma. [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016]AbstractBACKGROUND: Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disorder affecting about 300 million people worldwide. As a holistic therapy, yoga has the potential to relieve both the physical and psychological suffering of people with asthma, and its popularity has expanded globally. A number of clinical trials have been carried out to evaluate the effects of yoga practice, with inconsistent results.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of yoga in people with asthma.METHODS: SEARCH METHODS: We systematically searched the Cochrane Airways Group Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PsycINFO, and handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched PEDro. We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP search portal. We searched all databases from their inception to 22 July 2015, and used no restriction on language of publication. We checked the reference lists of eligible studies and relevant review articles for additional studies. We attempted to contact investigators of eligible studies and experts in the field to learn of other published and unpublished studies.SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared yoga with usual care (or no intervention) or sham intervention in people with asthma and reported at least one of the following outcomes: quality of life, asthma symptom score, asthma control, lung function measures, asthma medication usage, and adverse events.DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted bibliographic information, characteristics of participants, characteristics of interventions and controls, characteristics of methodology, and results for the outcomes of our interest from eligible studies. For continuous outcomes, we used mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) to denote the treatment effects, if the outcomes were measured by the same scale across studies. Alternatively, if the outcomes were measured by different scales across studies, we used standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% CI. For dichotomous outcomes, we used risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI to measure the treatment effects. We performed meta-analysis with Review Manager 5.3. We used the fixed-effect model to pool the data, unless there was substantial heterogeneity among studies, in which case we used the random-effects model instead. For outcomes inappropriate or impossible to pool quantitatively, we conducted a descriptive analysis and summarized the findings narratively.MAIN RESULTS: We included 15 RCTs with a total of 1048 participants. Most of the trials were conducted in India, followed by Europe and the United States. The majority of participants were adults of both sexes with mild to moderate asthma for six months to more than 23 years. Five studies included yoga breathing alone, while the other studies assessed yoga interventions that included breathing, posture, and meditation. Interventions lasted from two weeks to 54 months, for no more than six months in the majority of studies. The risk of bias was low across all domains in one study and unclear or high in at least one domain for the remainder.There was some evidence that yoga may improve quality of life (MD in Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score per item 0.57 units on a 7-point scale, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.77; 5 studies; 375 participants), improve symptoms (SMD 0.37, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.65; 3 studies; 243 participants), and reduce medication usage (RR 5.35, 95% CI 1.29 to 22.11; 2 studies) in people with asthma. The MD for AQLQ score exceeded the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of 0.5, but whether the mean changes exceeded the MCID for asthma symptoms is uncertain due to the lack of an established MCID in the severity scores used in the included studies. The effects of yoga on change from baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (MD 0.04 liters, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.19; 7 studies; 340 participants; I2 = 68%) were not statistically significant. Two studies indicated improved asthma control, but due to very significant heterogeneity (I2 = 98%) we did not pool data. No serious adverse events associated with yoga were reported, but the data on this outcome was limited.AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS: We found moderate-quality evidence that yoga probably leads to small improvements in quality of life and symptoms in people with asthma. There is more uncertainty about potential adverse effects of yoga and its impact on lung function and medication usage. RCTs with a large sample size and high methodological and reporting quality are needed to confirm the effects of yoga for asthma.Free Article 
PMID: 27557146 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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25.Ann Intern Med. 2017 Jul 18;167(2). doi: 10.7326/P17-9039. Epub 2017 Jun 20.Yoga, Physical Therapy, or Education for Chronic Low Back Pain.[No authors listed]
PMID: 28631006 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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26.R I Med J (2013). 2016 Mar 1;99(3):20-2.Yoga for Depression and Anxiety: A Review of Published Research and Implications for Healthcare Providers.Uebelacker LA1Broughton MK2.Author information: 
1. Associate Professor (Research), Departments of Psychiatry and Human Behavior and Family Medicine, Brown University; Staff Psychologist, Butler Hospital.
2. Research Assistant, Butler Hospital.AbstractThere is increasing interest in the use of yoga as way to manage or treat depression and anxiety. Yoga is afford- able, appealing, and accessible for many people, and there are plausible cognitive/affective and biologic mechanisms by which yoga could have a positive impact on depression and anxiety. There is indeed preliminary evidence that yoga may be helpful for these problems, and there are several ongoing larger-scale randomized clinical trials. The current evidence base is strongest for yoga as efficacious in reducing symptoms of unipolar depression. However, there may be risks to engaging in yoga as well. Healthcare providers can help patients evaluate whether a particular community-based yoga class is helpful and safe for them.
PMID: 26929966 [Indexed for MEDLINE]
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27.J Complement Integr Med. 2017 Mar 25;14(3). pii: /j/jcim.2017.14.issue-3/jcim-2015-0112/jcim-2015-0112.xml. doi: 10.1515/jcim-2015-0112.Development and validation of a yoga module for Parkinson disease.Kakde N1Metri KG1Varambally S1Nagaratna R1Nagendra HR1.Author information: 
1. .AbstractBackground Parkinson’s disease (PD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, affects motor and nonmotor functions, leading to severe debility and poor quality of life. Studies have reported the beneficial role of yoga in alleviating the symptoms of PD; however, a validated yoga module for PD is unavailable. This study developed and validated an integrated yoga module(IYM) for PD. Methods The IYM was prepared after a thorough review of classical yoga texts and previous findings. Twenty experienced yoga experts, who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, were selected validating the content of the IYM. A total of 28 practices were included in the IYM, and each practice was discussed and rated as (i) not essential, (ii) useful but not essential, and (iii) essential; the content validity ratio (CVR) was calculated using Lawshe’s formula. Results Data analysis revealed that of the 28 I

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